From Waste to Energy image

From Waste to Energy.

Dilansir dari website PROKOPIM Kota Bandung, tepatnya pada 21 Februari 2005, terjadi ledakan dan longsor sampah di TPA di Leuwigajah, Cimahi, Jawa Barat yang menewaskan 157 korban jiwa. Kampung Cilimus dan Kampung Pojok yang berjarak satu kilometer dari TPA Leuwigajah, tersapu habis oleh longsoran sampah. Di TPA ini telah tertumpuk gundukan sampah setinggi 60 meter dengan panjang 200 meter. Karena hujan deras dan konsentrasi gas metana yang tinggi, terjadilah longsor dan ledakan. Berikut foto TPA Leuwigajah sebelum terjadinya ledakan.

TPA Leuwigajah sebelum tahun 2005 (Photo source: Humas Bandung)

  

Kenapa TPA Tiba-Tiba Bisa Meledak?

Penyebab utamanya? Yap, sampah organik. Melalui proses dekomposisi atau pembusukan, bakteri atau mikroorganisme mengurai sampah organik dan menghasilkan berbagai gas kimia. Gas yang dihasilkan di antaranya, 90-98% adalah metana dan karbon dioksida, dan sisanya 2-10% adalah nitrogen, oksigen, amonia, sulfida, hidrogen, dan lainnya. Pada suhu, kelembapan, hingga kadar air tertentu, jumlah gas ini dapat meningkat dan menimbulkan ledakan. 

 

To make things worse, metana adalah gas yang sangat mudah terbakar, di mana ledakan dapat terjadi apabila konsentrasi gas metana mencapai 5-15% dari total volume udara. Umumnya, produksi gas di TPA akan memuncak setelah 5-7 tahun. Namun, apabila dibiarkan TPA dapat terus menghasilkan gas selama lebih dari 50 tahun. Efek sampingnya?

 

Selain memperbesar kemungkinan terjadinya ledakan di TPA, Gas TPA sendiri dapat menyebar ke pemukiman hingga bangunan terdekat melalui udara dan tanah. Gas ini dapat memasuki saluran bawah tanah ataupun terbawa oleh angin menuju bangunan di sekitar TPA.  

 

Tentu hal ini sangat membahayakan. Tidak hanya berpotensi menimbulkan ledakan, gas ini juga sangat beracun. Dalam hal ini, penghirupnya dapat mengalami batuk, iritasi mata, hidung, tenggorokan, sakit kepala, mual, sulit tidur, nyeri dada, asma, kesulitan bernapas, hingga tidak sadarkan diri!

 

The Inventions For Solution

Kalau dipikirkan dengan seksama, TPA bisa dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber energi. Berkat perkembangan teknologi, sampah yang sudah terbuang dan tertumpuk di TPA dapat dikelola kembali menjadi suatu hal yang lebih bermanfaat.

 

Waste to Energy (WtE) merupakan proses mengubah bahan kimia yang dihasilkan sampah organik menjadi energi seperti listrik, panas, atau uap dengan menggunakan teknologi tertentu. Umumnya, sampah memiliki nilai kalor yang rendah, sehingga mengolahnya secara manual, seperti membakar sampah hanya dengan api tanpa menggunakan teknologi, tidak akan menghasilkan energi yang memadai. 

 

“Nilai kalor adalah jumlah energi yang dilepaskan ketika suatu bahan bakar dibakar secara sempurna”

 

Oleh karena itu, penggunaan teknologi sangat penting dalam keberhasilan pengelolaan sampah menjadi energi yang memadai. Berikut beberapa teknologi yang telah dikembangkan:

  1. Gasifikasi

Penelitian menemukan, gasifikasi tidak efisien untuk menghasilkan energi alternatif. Hal ini disebabkan karena metode ini dapat menghasilkan emisi sebagaimana pembakaran pada umumnya. Selain itu, metode ini juga membutuhkan banyak energi dan harus dibersihkan secara rutin.

 

Photo source: Waste to Energy International

 

  1. Gasifikasi Busur Plasma

Gasifikasi busur plasma hanya digunakan untuk mengolah limbah berbahaya dan radioaktif saja. Kekurangannya ialah membutuhkan biaya yang besar dan menghabiskan banyak energi. 

 



Photo source: Waste to Energy International

 

  1. Pirolisis

Pirolisis berasal dari Jerman dan telah banyak digunakan di berbagai negara di dunia. Metode ini memiliki banyak kelebihan, seperti tidak menghasilkan polutan, tetapi menghasilkan gas sintesis dan nilai kalor yang tinggi. Secara ekologis, pirolisis menjadi metode dengan teknologi yang paling bersih. Bahkan, pirolisis telah dipasarkan di seluruh dunia, termasuk Eropa.

Photo source: Waste to Energy International



Beberapa negara yang sudah menerapkan WtE, di antaranya:

 

1. China memiliki 28 pabrik insinerasi Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) yang dibangun tahun 2012. Pabrik ini dapat menangani 800 ton sampah perhari, di mana menjadi fasilitas WtE terbesar di dunia.

2. Abu Dhabi dan Sharjah mengeluarkan dana sebesar 8,2 miliar USD untuk pembangunan pabrik pengolah limbah dengan metode gasifikasi dan pirolisis.

3. Italia membangun insinerator yang dapat mengelola 650.000 ton sampah per tahun.

4. Swedia dan Denmark menggunakan teknologi pembangkit Combined Heat and Power (CHP) yang menghasilkan 100kW energi.

5. Jerman memiliki pabrik Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), bahkan Jerman mengimpor sampah negara tetangga.

6. Inggris tepatnya di Manchester, terdapat pabrik gasifikasi Energos yang mengolah Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) atau limbah padat kota, limbah industri, dan limbah komersial dengan kapasitas mencapai 78.000 ton/tahun.

7. Turki memiliki pembangkit energi dengan mengolah biomassa yang menghasilkan 300 KWth dan 50 KWe. Pembangkit ini menggunakan gasifikasi dan pirolisis.

8. Amerika Serikat memiliki pabrik utilitas WtE yang menerapkan sistem gasifikasi, yang mampu mengolah 200 pon sampah kering menjadi energi IST perjamnya. Pabrik ini bernama Novo Energy dan terletak di empat negara bagian. 

9. Jepang memiliki teknologi instalasi pengolahan termal paling modern dengan kapasitas mencapai 39 juta ton sampah per tahun.

10. Kanada memiliki pabrik berteknologi insinerasi tertua. Kini pabrik ini dikembangkan untuk menggunakan metode gasifikasi plasma dari Plasma Energy Group dan Nevitus Plasma Inc.

11.  Australia tepatnya di Kwinana, terdapat pabrik gasifikasi plasma yang dimiliki Phoenix Energy Australia Pty Ltd. 

12.  India memiliki 14 pabrik, tetapi hanya 4 pabrik yang beroperasi, yakni Jindal Ecopolis Management Company PVT Ltd, Organic Waste Recycling Systems PVT, Rochem and Shalivahana Green Energy Ltd.

 

Beberapa tahun mendatang, akan ada teknologi WtE terbaru yakni Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC), yang mampu mempercepat proses konversi panas bumi dari limbah basah dengan katalis asam pada tekanan tinggi dan panas tertentu. Selain itu, terdapat pula Dendro Liquid Energy (DLE) yang berasal dari Jerman, di mana hampir mampu menerapkan zero waste

 

How About Indonesia?

Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM) sedang membangun Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Sampah (PLTSa) atau Pengolah Sampah jadi Energi Listrik (PSEL). Proyek ini dikerjakan sejak tahun 2019 dan diharapkan selesai tahun 2022. 

Photo Source: Website PLN

 

Proyek PLTSa tersebar di 12 kota di Indonesia. Di antaranya Palembang, Jakarta, Tangerang, Tangerang Selatan, Bekasi, Bandung, Solo, Semarang, Surabaya, Denpasar, Makassar, dan Manado. 

 

PLTSa menggunakan teknologi termal yang dipilih berdasarkan Best Available Technology Meet Actual Needs. Di mana sebagian besar alatnya dikembangkan di dalam negeri dengan kapasitas pengolahan sampah mencapai 100 ton/hari dan menghasilkan listrik 700 kWh.

 

Pada April 2021 lalu, Presiden Joko Widodo telah meresmikan PLTSa Surabaya, di mana sekaligus menjadi kota pertama yang akan mengoperasikan WtE. PLTSa ini berdaya 10 MW dengan kapasitas 1.500 ton/hari dengan nilai investasi berkisar 49,86 juta US Dollar.

 

Selanjutnya, PLTSa di Bekasi berdaya 9 MW yang bernilai investasi 120 juta US Dollar. Lalu, PLTSa Solo yang bedaya 10 MW, PLTSa Palembang 20 MW, dan PLTSa Denpasar 20 MW. Ketiga kota ini bernilai investasi 297,82 juta US Dollar dengan kapasitas 2.800 ton/hari. PLTSa Jakarta 38 MW bernilai 345,8 juta US Dollar, PLTSa Bandung 29 MW bernilai 245 juta US Dollar, lalu Makassar, Manado, dan Tangerang yang masing-masing berdaya 20 MW dan bernilai 120 juta US Dollar.

 

Aliansi Zero Waste Indonesia (AZWI) sempat mengkritisi pembangunan PLTSa karena dianggap meningkatkan risiko kerusakan lingkungan dan ekonomi. Sebab dengan adanya PLTSa, upaya pengurangan dan pemilahan sampah menjadi tidak maksimal serta biaya yang dikeluarkan cukup besar. Tindakan pencegahan timbunan sampah menjadi lengah, karena anggapan semua sampah dapat dikelola oleh PLTSa.

 

Nyatanya, Bali sudah pernah mencoba proyek WtE tapi gagal. Sejak 2007, Pemerintah Bali telah menjalin kerja sama dengan PT. Navigat Organic Energy Indonesia (NOEI) untuk menangani pengelolaan sampah. Di mana, Badan Pengelola Kebersihan Wilayah Sarbagita sempat menjamin semua sampah akan terkelola pada tahun 2012. Akan tetapi, hingga kini sampah masih menggunung dan PLTSa belum terlaksana di TPA Suwung, padahal proyek ini ditargetkan sudah dapat beroperasi di tahun 2020. 

 

Sebab ketidakberhasilan investor dalam mengolah sampah menjadi listrik, maka kontrak diakhiri. Hal ini menjadi salah satu bukti bahwa teknologi yang dimiliki Indonesia dinilai belum mampu untuk menerapkan from waste to energy. Tidak sampai di situ, bahkan banyak aktivis lingkungan yang meragukan kesiapan Indonesia dalam mengembangkan PLTSa.

 

Source:

Avada Environmental; Prescouter; Waste to Energy International; Energy Saving Trust; Mongabay; Department of Health New York State; Direktorat Inventarisasi Gas Rumah Kaca dan Monitoring Pelaporan dan Verifikasi Direktorat Jenderal Pengendalian Perubahan Iklim, Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan; Protokol dan Komunikasi Pimpinan Sekretariat Kota Bandung

 

This article is written by E.J. Syamsy

How is Veganism saving the world? image

How is Veganism saving the world?.

With veganism on the rise, it seems likely that veganism is slowing down climate change as well. How exactly?

#1 Less Greenhouse Carbon Emission

A widely publicised report published by the Worldwatch Institute indicates that 51 per cent of worldwide greenhouse-gas emissions can be attributed to animal agriculture, specifically to cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, camels and pigs which are raised and killed for food. 

Do you know that these animals produce methane?

Methane is generally generated through enteric fermentation and manure storage.To make things worse, methane gas has an effect on global warming 28 times higher than carbon dioxide.

#2 Less Water Footprint

According to National Geographic, 70 percent of the planet is covered by water, but only 2.5 percent of it is fresh. This means a very small percentage of the world’s water is drinkable.

While many of us have the luxury of not having to worry about where our water comes from, billions of people aren’t as fortunate. In fact, an estimated three in 10 people worldwide—2.1 billion—lack access to safe drinking water.

Veganism is considered eco-friendly because vegan food production consumes less water than meat. 

In fact, according to an article by TakePart,  about one-third of the world’s water consumption is for producing animal products.

Per ton of product, animal products generally have a larger water footprint than crop products. The same is true when we look at the water footprint per calorie. The average water footprint per calorie for beef is twenty times larger than for cereals and starchy roots.

#3 Less Land Use

The conversion of land for beef production and animal feed is a leading cause of deforestation in many tropical regions, including in the Amazon, where a recent spike in forest fires and clearing has been linked to cattle ranching.





How big of an impact can it make?

#1 Less Gas Emission

The chart below shows how much greenhouse gases could be stemmed if the world were to adopt various different diets.

 

Greenhouse gas savings potential from the global adoption of various diets. Error bars show the spread of results from different studies. Data without error bars are from one study only. Adapted from IPCC (2018). Chart by Carbon Brief using Highcharts.

  • Vegan: a completely plant-based diet.

  • Vegetarian: a diet of grains, vegetables, fruits, sugars, oils, eggs and dairy and around one serving of meat or seafood per month.

  • Flexitarian: a diet in which 75% of meat and dairy is replaced by cereals and pulses. (This includes at least 500g of fruit and vegetables and at least 100g of plant-based protein per day – and no more than one portion of red meat a week.)

  • Healthy diet: a diet based on global dietary guidelines, which involves eating less meat and more fruit and vegetables.

  • Fair and frugal: a diet assuming food is shared equally across the world with each person consuming 2800 calories a day. (This involves a relatively low level of animal products.)

  • Pescetarian: a vegetarian diet that includes seafood.

  • Climate carnivore: a diet where 75% of red meat is replaced with other meat.

  • Mediterranean: a diet of vegetables, fruits, grains, sugars, oils, eggs, dairy, seafood and moderate amounts of poultry, pork, lamb and beef.

 

#2 Less Land Use

Research suggests that if everyone shifted to a plant-based diet we would reduce global land use for agriculture by 75%. This large reduction of agricultural land use would be possible thanks to a reduction in land used for grazing and a smaller need for land to grow crops. 

 

Moreover, if we would shift towards a more plant-based diet we don’t only need less agricultural land overall, we actually need less cropland. It doesn’t make sense? If we substitute beans, peas, tofu and cereals for meat and dairy, surely we would need more cropland to grow them?

 

Simple. Crops require less space to grow!

 

Let’s use a simple (but inaccurate) example for simplicity and illustration purposes.

 

A cow requires 100 square meters of land and can feed up to 20 people at once. 

Broccoli requires 5 square meters of land and can feed up to 10 people at once.

 

If there are 20 people who need to eat, how much land would we need if we go either carnivore vs vegan?

 

That’s 100 square meters if we eat beef or 10 square meters if we eat broccoli.



This means that everyone can help halt climate change just by eating great-tasting plant-based foods. 

 

In fact, a study published in New Scientist magazine shows that each person can reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that his or her diet contributes to climate change by up to 60 per cent—just by going vegan.



Sources:

Our World in Data Organization; Carbon Brief Organization; Down to Earth Organization; Water Footprint Organization

 

This article is written by Cindy T.

 

How To Identify Sustainable Brand? image

How To Identify Sustainable Brand?.

1. A lot of specific, well-organized, and clear information 

Our favorite brand websites are like an anthill. At the tippy-top, you only see a tag line and short promise of sustainability. But click on the “Sustainability” link, and you find an organized but ever-branching world of information. The first level down might briefly describe their approach to materials, labor, emissions and extended producer responsibility (a.k.a. what you do with their product when it’s worn out or no longer fits). Click any of those, and it will take you further down into more details on their factories, certifications, exact fiber mix with percentages, and exactly where to send your old items for repair or donation.

2. Straightforward Information

 Instead, it’s more about whether their sustainability page obfuscates or elucidates. On a good website, all the answers to our questions are just a few clicks away. On a greenwashing website, we’re left with our head spinning, and with more questions than answers.

3.  Third-party certifications

 Don’t just tell us you’re sustainable and ethical. Show us proof!. For example: How much of the cotton is organic? Are the products themselves certified by Oeko-Tex, or just the material in the products? Is your brand certified, or only the factory you source from? We don’t expect tiny brands to be fully certified, but if you claim to be sourcing sustainably and ethically, you should have at least one certificate of authenticity to back your claims up.

4.  Where they are and where they want to go

No brand is perfect. So the brands we trust most have measured their negative impact in detail — toxins, emissions, water usage, waste — on the environment and set goals for where they want to go, and by what date they hope to achieve it. That helps keep them honest and motivate the company and employees to do better.

5. Labor transparency

For small brands, sharing the name and location of their factory can mean a competitor steals that factory, or can put the artisans in danger of a burglary. But we would at least like to see pictures and know which region of which country they’re located in, what they’re paid relative to the minimum and living wage in the area, and what kind of inspections and certifications they operate under.

6. Accurate information and promises 

Even the best brands have shared misinformation in the past. But now that we’re all aware of the need for vigorous fact-checking, we don’t have the patience for pitches that tell us that fashion is the second most polluting industry. Or website copy that promises a product that is not possible. For example, one brand pitched bags that are made from leather that is the offcuts from a leather jacket factory, and later said the leather was vegetable-tanned. That’s not possible, as leather jackets can’t be made from stiff vegetable-tanned leather. That’s not a brand we will link to until they fix the copy and demonstrate more expertise and awareness.

7. Cultural awareness

We’ve received some truly offensive pitches before from brands who just don’t get it when it comes to white saviorism, cultural appropriation, and other hot-button topics in the sustainable and ethical fashion scene. Or, they don’t have any models of color in the lookbook they sent over. We might pass on these pitches completely, or if we think the issue is easily fixable and not representative of deeper issues, tell them that we simply can’t share their message until they do some updates.

 

This article is summarised by Cindy T from a part of a blog published byEcoCult.com which is originally written by Alden Wicker.

 

9 Top Environmental Books to Learn About Climate Science and Sustainability image

9 Top Environmental Books to Learn About Climate Science and Sustainability.

You’re here because you’re keen to learn about sustainability and are seeking to add some environmental books to your reading list (or add them to your home library!). This curated list features some of the most important and influential books on the topic of climate change, environment and sustainability.

From climate science and the devastating impacts of global warming through to new design systems and economic thinking, these are the books that have defined the modern environmental movement. We hope they help you understand the realities the planet faces and inspires you to take action to solve some of our most pressing environmental problems. Enjoy!

1. Silent Spring by Rachel Carson

This pivotal environmental classic by Rachel Carson published in 1962, birthed the modern environmental movement as we know. Carson was the first to bring to the public spotlight the harm that synthetic pesticides and chemicals caused animal species and the environment. Remember, this was at a time when chemicals were being used in food production and other industries to reduce production costs and advance the economy.

There was public outcry after her book was released, leading Congress to investigate the issues Carson had raised. While she faced heavy criticism and opposition from those with vested interests (Big Ag and the chemical industry namely), Congress found in favour, banning the use of DDT and moving forward to create the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Silent Spring is recommended reading for all environmentalists. With millions of copies sold worldwide, this is an environmental book that deserves a spot in any environmental library. It’s a challenging read with chemistry thrown in, but worth the effort.

Rachel Carson Pioneer Environmental Movement her book Silent Spring

2. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail and Succeed by Jared Diamond

In Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail and Succeed (2005) Pulitzer Prize winning science writer Jared Diamond examines a range of past societies to identify why they either collapsed or continued to thrive. Case studies include: Inuit of Greenland, the Maya, the indigenous people of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) and many more.

Is there anything that contemporary societies can learn from the disastrous lessons of previous societies? Diamond argues there is much to learn. With the recipe of climate change, overpopulation and political upheaval threatening modern civilisation, perhaps the only way to move forward is to look back. The book prompts people to ask how businesses and our economies impact the environment, and what can be done to solve these issues.

3. This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs The Climate by Naomi Klein

In This Changes Everything, award-winning journalist Naomi Klein and author of the international bestseller The Shock Doctrine, explores the climate crisis and how rejecting neoliberalism and its associated political systems to a more evolved system that considers people and planet may be the only way to save the human species.

Related Post: The 5 Sustainability Trade-Offs That Even Hard Core Environmentalists Make

In this in-depth book, Klein reveals the extent of climate denialism, how those with vested interests have conspired to block climate policies and environmental programs and how humans will have to embrace radical change within themselves and the systems that govern society if it stands a chance of surviving and thriving. She provides plenty of examples where communities are already making the necessary shifts, the only question is – is yours willing to do the same?

4. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things by William McDonough and Michael Braungart

In their book Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, architect William McDonough and chemist Michael Braungart offers a more sustainable approach to design and manufacture. Rather than seeing production as linear, they encourage an integrated design system based on natural sciences where by circularity and closed loop systems are employed and the concept of waste is eliminated.

The books put forward a design framework characterised by three principles derived from nature: that “everything is a resource for something else” so there is no such thing as waste; that it is manufactured using renewable energy and that it celebrates diversity and creativity.

In others words, instead of cradle to grave, the authors challenge readers to consider cradle to cradle, how to keep materials in circulation for longer and reduce overall impact and waste.

Cradle to Cradle- Remaking the Way We Make Things by Michael Braungart

5. Eating Animals by Jonathan Safran Foer

Eating Animals by Jonathan Safran Foer explores the moral aspects of consuming animals. Investigating its roots and how it became a part of cultural and personal identity—from Christmas hams and Thanksgiving turkeys right through to Sunday roasts and eating meat pies at footy matches– Foer prompts readers to question their role in the factory farming system and whether a more human food system can be developed.

In a Big Think interview Foer says:

“The United Nations has said that animal agriculture is one of the top two or three causes of every significant environmental problem on the planet.  The Union of Concerned Scientists and the Center for Disease Control has said that we need to stop raising animals in the way that we are because it’s making antibiotics less effective… It doesn’t take being an animal lover. I myself am not an animal lover. I don’t particularly care for chickens to be honest, or cows or pigs. But there are some things that are sort of below the line of very basic human decency and the farm system that we have is.”

Eating Animals by Jonathan Safran Foer

6. The End of Nature by Bill McKibben

This classic book by prominent environmentalist Bill McKibben (who went on to co-found the environmental activist group 350.org) has been dubbed the first book about global warming written for a general audience. Published in 1989, and republished with a new introduction and appendix of facts and figures, McKibben’s argument that the survival of the planet rests on a radical shift in the way humans relate to the natural environment is still just as relevant today.

McKibben addresses environmental issues as the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and the depletion of the ozone layer and offers two ways forward: “The Defiant Reflex” (the power of technology to help rectify human-induced environmental problems) or “The Humble Approach” (living modestly and avoiding our need to control the environment). Surely employing both solutions is better?

7. 2040: A Handbook for the Regeneration based on the documentary 2040 by Damon Gameau

The 2040: A Handbook for the Regeneration based on the documentary 2040 book is based on the uplifting documentary film 2040 by award-winning director Damon Gameau. It is a comprehensive lifestyle guide that runs through many sustainability concepts and green products, from transformative economics, regenerative agriculture, green technology, clean energy, circular design, low waste living and much more. This is highly recommended reading for anyone needing positive news and some climate hope.

Win Double Passes to See the Environmental Documentary ‘2040’

8. Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st Century Economist by Kate Raworth

Sustainability cannot be achieved without transforming the economic system. Historically, economics have set the tone in shaping public policy based on 19th and 20th century economic models that don’t factor in the health and wellbeing of society, environmental limitations and the planet’s resources. It can be argued that the silliest idea humans have come up with is chasing infinite growth on a finite planet.

In her book Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st Century, economist Kate Raworth seeks to transform the economic system by showing how a universally beneficial economic system can be created to serve society not a concentrated few, which is more collaborative rather than competitive and takes into account societal and environmental considerations. The aim is to restructure the economy based on values so that it meets the needs of people and societies without exhausting the planet’s resources. Her economic model can be best explained with a doughnut diagram where humanity, the environment and the economy are all interdependent. This book is a Financial Times and Sunday Times Best Seller and Forbes Book of the Year and comes highly recommended by many progressive economists and sustainability educators.

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist:  Raworth, Kate: 9781603586740: Amazon.com: Books

9. The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming by David Wallace-Wells

Written by New York magazine columnist and deputy editor David Wallace-Wells, The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming travels through time to provide readers with a preview of the disastrous consequences of global warming if humans don’t take action: food shortages, refugee emergencies, flash floods, worsening droughts and hotter, more frequent fires.

The book avoids the Pollyanna view and instead covers climate catastrophes in the hope that by painting this nightmarish picture, readers will mobilised to make radical changes in their own lives and push for radical economic and political system changes. If you suffer from climate anxiety, avoid this book.

The Uninhabitable Earth: A Story of the Future eBook : Wallace-Wells,  David: Amazon.in: Kindle Store

This article is originally published in Eco Warrior Princess, 2019.

Is Your Glitter Makeup Bad for the Planet? image

Is Your Glitter Makeup Bad for the Planet?.

Saat pembatasan mulai dilonggarkan di seluruh dunia, rutinitas make-up kembali lagi. Dari bare-face hingga minimum make-up karena work-from-home, kaum wanita mulai berdandan seperti awal semua.

Bahkan, apabila pembatasan mulai dilonggarkan secara terus menerus, kita juga bisa berpergian ke tempat publik seperti acara pesta dan acara formal lainnya. And our go to make-up look? Sangat mungkin peluangnya untuk Anda melewatkan make-up glitter.

Inilah sebabnya mengapa sangat penting untuk Anda mengetahui bahwa glitter sebenarnya adalah salah satu perusak lingkungan -  bahkan lebih merusak dibandingkan produk makeup lainnya.

Tahun lalu, para ilmuwan di Inggris menyerukan larangan total penggunaan glitter setelah menemukan hubungan langsung antara bahan gemerlap dan polusi laut. Dr Dannielle Green, dosen senior biologi di Universitas Anglia Ruskin, mengatakan kepada BBC News:

"Glitter adalah jenis mikroplastik, dapat memiliki efek yang sama seperti mikroplastik lainnya dan tidak boleh dilepaskan dalam jumlah besar ke lingkungan."

Kerusakan yang dimaksud Dr Green mirip dengan mikroplastik yang terkandung dalam pakaian sintetis: ketika dicuci, partikel kecil plastik dilepaskan ke saluran air.

Glitter bereaksi dengan cara yang sama ketika membersihkan wajah Anda setelah keluar malam yang mempesona.

Mengapa mikroplastik menjadi berita buruk?

Ada beberapa alasan yang mengkhawatirkan.

Jika Anda menyukai hewan dan/atau vegan, Anda harus menyadari bahwa mikroplastik sangat membahayakan kehidupan laut.

Partikel-partikel ini dapat dicerna oleh semua bentuk kehidupan laut – termasuk organisme sekecil zooplankton – menghalangi saluran pencernaan hewan dan menipu mereka agar berpikir bahwa mereka tidak perlu makan, yang menyebabkan kelaparan.

Bahan kimia beracun juga terkadang menempel pada permukaan plastik dan ketika hewan laut menelannya, mereka terkena racun.

Nicholas Mallos, direktur senior program Laut Bebas Sampah Ocean Conservancy, mengatakan kepada Bustle bahwa

"penelitian menunjukkan bahwa plastik dapat memengaruhi reproduksi dan perilaku makan pada ikan dan mengangkut bahan kimia beracun, di antara efek lainnya ..."

Bukan hanya mempengaruhi ikan, mikroplsatik juga mempengaruhi manusia. Ketika ikan akhirnya memakan partikel tersebut, mereka ikut terkonsumsi saat manusia memakan makanan laut.

Walau dampaknya masih diteliti – para ilmuwan sudah menemukan gejala-gelaa tertentu, yakni gangguan endokrin – yakni zat yang dapat mengganggu fungsi hormon.

Satu penelitian menemukan bahwa mereka dapat mengudara dan benar-benar turun hujan dari langit. Sementara hujan gemerlap terdengar seperti skenario dongeng, kenyataannya adalah mimpi buruk.

Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, banyak perusahaan menggunakan glitter yang terurai secara alami.

Upaya untuk meminimalkan polusi plastik yang diperjuangkan oleh merek kecil seperti Wild Glitter dan Eco Glitter Fun, telah menciptakan opsi glitter yang dapat terurai secara hayati.


Tetapi apakah upaya ini cukup?

Sebuah studi baru-baru ini menemukan bahwa glitter biodegradable dan glitter tradisional menyebabkan tingkat kerusakan lingkungan yang serupa.

Perusahaan dalam studi tersebut menggunakan glitter berbasis selulosa yang kemudian dilapisi dengan plastik, atau mika, mineral silikat. Para peneliti menemukan bahwa efek glitter yang lebih “ramah lingkungan” ini hampir identik dengan produk konvensional.

Namun, kita harus ingat bahwa glitter, meskipun berbahaya, mewakili kurang dari 1% dari semua mikroplastik yang mencemari planet kita.

Di saat polusi plastik berada pada titik tertinggi sepanjang masa, kita semua harus mempertimbangkan untuk melepaskan, atau setidaknya membatasi, kegemaran kita akan kilauan. 

Pretty as it is, it’s hardly a necessity.

This article is translated and modified by Cindy Tandiono from Eco Warrior Princess, originally written by Sascha Camilli.

The Great Garbage Patch image

The Great Garbage Patch.

How grossed out are you when you see the below picture?

Photo source: Liputan6.com / Nefri Inge



Ini adalah foto Sungai Musi di Palembang.

Dari sebuah berita yang diliput oleh tim Liputan6, sang narasumber berkata bahwa petugas kebersihan sering mengambil sampah di pangkal sungai, namun tetap tidak ada perbedaannya dari hari ke hari.

Tapi, tahukah kamu kalau sungai ini masih tidak ada apa-apanya di banding dengan The Great Garbage Patch? 

 

What Is It?

The Garbage Patch adalah kumpulan sampah plastik yang mengapung di permukaan laut. Garbage Patch bukan hanya satu lokasi saja. Sejauh ini, sudah diidentifikasi 5 lokasi garbage patch yang akan kita bahas lagi dibawah.

 

What are the obstacles to clean the great Pacific garbage patch?

Salah satu garbage patch yang sudah diidentifikasi, The Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Source: Latin American Post

 

Menurut United Nations Environmental Programme, pada tiap satu mil persegi lautan terdapat 46.000 plastik. Diperkirakan luas garbage patch berkisar 700.000-15.000.000 kilometer persegi. Padahal, riset menunjukkan bahwa sekira 70% sampah laut pada akhirnya tenggelam. 

 

Sampah ini terperangkap karena pusaran arus laut yang dipengaruhi oleh rotasi bumi dan angin atau disebut gyres.  Selain itu, garbage patch semakin berkembang karena jumlah sampah manusia yang terus meningkat. Diperkirakan terdapat sekitar 100 juta ton plastik yang dihasilkan per tahunnya, di mana 10% diantaranya terbawa ke laut. 

 

Source: https://marinedebris.noaa.gov/

 

Faktanya, plastik tidak dapat terurai sempurna, tetapi menjadi potongan kecil dengan polimer atau susunan kimia yang tidak berubah. Potongan kecil inilah yang disebut mikroplastik.

Sebutan patch sedikit menyesatkan pemahaman masyarakat di mana garbage patch dianggap sebagai pulau sampah. Padahal sampah plastik yang terkumpul terdiri dari berbagai ukuran, dari jaring ikan besar hingga mikroplastik. Sehingga, memungkinkan bagi kapal untuk berlayar melewati garbage patch. Penelitian menemukan 46% dari patch terdiri dari jaring ikan.




Ocean Trash Map

Diperkirakan sekitar 80% sampah ini berasal dari sungai dan daratan, yang mana sebagian besarnya berasal dari Amerika Utara dan Asia. Sedangkan 20% lainnya berasal dari kapal kargo besar, kapal pesiar, serta anjungan minyak lepas pantai yang membuang puing ke laut.

 

Dibawah ini merupakan peta yang menunjukan darimana sampah laut berasal. Apakah kamu bisa melihat Indonesia?

 

Peta ini menunjukan dari mana sampah laut berasal. Source: The Weather Channel | Alfred-Wegener-Institut/AWI-Litterbase

 

Nope! Negara Indonesia hampir tertutup di peta ini karena kita adalah negara kedua terbesar penyumbang limbah plastik! 

 

Pada tahun 2010 saja, 8,8 juta metrik ton sampah plastik yang tidak dikelola dibuang oleh negara China. Dari estimasi peneliti, kurang lebih 3,53 juta metrik ton dari sampah plsatik tersebut berakhir di lautan. 

 

Indonesia sendiri membuang 3,2 juta metrik ton sampah plastik tanpa pengelolaan apapun,dan  diperkirakan 1,29 juta metrik ton menjadi sampah plastik laut.

 

Menurut laporan yang dibuat oleh Wall Street Journal, total limbah plastik dari kedua negara ini merepresentasikan sepertiga dari total seluruh limbah plastik yang ada di perairan global!







Identified Patches

Sayangnya, The Great Garbage Patch ini bukan hanya terletak di satu lokasi, tapi di berbagai lokasi. Berikut adalah garbage patch yang sudah dapat diidentifikasi.

 

 

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch terletak di bagian tengah utara Samudera Pasifik. S Sampah yang terkumpul berasal dari Lingkar Pasifik, yakni Asia, Amerika Utara, dan Amerika Selatan. Patch ini terbilang paling terkenal dibanding yang lain, sebab ukurannya yang sangat besar. Tahun 2018, luas Great Pacific Garbage Patch mencapai 1,6 juta kilometer persegi, di mana 94% nya terdiri dari mikroplastik. Sekira 80.000 ton plastik atau setara 500 jet jumbo mengapung di Great Pacific Garbage Patch.



The South Pacific Garbage Patch

Terletak di South Pacific Gyre yang terbentang dari perairan timur Australia hingga Amerika Selatan, patch ini ditemukan tahun 2007, di mana belum terdeteksi oleh satelit karena sebagian besarnya tersusun oleh plastik seukuran beras.

 

The North Atlantic Garbage Patch

Terletak di Atlantik Utara, patch ini ditemukan tahun 1972. Berdasarkan penelitian Asosiasi Pendidikan Laut, diperkirakan patch ini berukuran ratusan kilometer dengan konsentrasi lebih dari 200.000 partikel per kilometer persegi.

 

The South Atlantic Garbage Patch

Terletak ratusan mil dari lepas pantai Amerika Utara,  South Atlantic Garbage Patch juga sebagian besarnya terdiri dari mikroplastik, yakni sekira 200.000 partikel per kilometer persegi.

 

The Indian Ocean Garbage Patch

The Indian Ocean Garbage Patch ​​terletak di pusat Samudera Hindia. Patch ini ditemukan tahun 2010 dan tersusun oleh plastik yang terurai menjadi mikroplastik. Diperkirakan konsentrasi mikroplastik sekira 10.000 partikel per kilometer persegi.

 

The Effects

1. Terbunuhnya burung dan hewan laut

Banyaknya plastik di laut seringkali membuat hewan laut ataupun burung terbunuh, karena menganggap plastik sebagai makanannya. Seperti penyu yang melihat kantung plastik sebagai ubur-ubur. Bahkan, diperkirakan bahwa jumlah plastik di garbage patch, 180 kali lebih banyak dibanding dengan makanan dan hewan di laut.

Source: Francis Perez

2. Tertangkapnya ikan tanpa nelayan atau pemancingan hantu

Keberadaan sampah plastik di laut, khususnya jaring ikan yang terbuang, mengakibatkan beberapa hewan laut terjerat, meskipun tidak ada nelayan. Akibatnya, risiko kematian hewan laut pun meningkat.

3. Ikan yang mengandung plastik

Plastik yang terurai menjadi mikroplastik seringkali tertelan oleh hewan laut, karena ukurannya yang kecil dan tercampur oleh air laut. Akibatnya, terdapat mikroplastik pada sebagian besar hewan laut yang membahayakan apabila dikonsumsi manusia.

4. Plastik menghasilkan racun

Plastik yang terurai menjadi mikroplastik melepaskan bahan kimia beracun seperti BPA atau bisphenol A dan PCB atau turunan dari polistirena, yang tentu saja mengancam kehidupan hewan laut. Peneliti menemukan bahwa 84% sampel yang diambil dari garbage patch mengandung bahan kimia beracun, yakni Persistent Bio-accumulative Toxic (PBT).

Source: The Ocean Clean Up

5. Mencegah masuknya sinar matahari

Plankton, alga, dan ganggang yang ada di laut tidak dapat berfotosintesis karena tidak mendapat sinar matahari yang cukup. Akibatnya, terjadi gangguan pada rantai makanan di laut.

6. Membahayakan navigasi dan merusak kapal

Seringkali sampah plastik di laut tidak terdeteksi atau terlihat oleh awak kapal. Sehingga, kapal bisa saja menabrak sampah tersebut. Akibatnya, sampah dapat terjerat pada baling-baling kapal hingga menyumbat saluran.

 

What Can We Do?

    • Memilah sampah organik dengan sampah anorganik untuk mempermudah proses daur ulang

    • Mengurangi penggunaan plastik sekali pakai

    • Mendukung organisasi yang bekerja untuk memberantas plastik laut

    • Menjadi relawan dalam upaya pembersihan laut di wilayah pesisir

    • Memberikan donasi pada NGO terkait

    • Memberitahu pihak berwenang setiap kali Anda mengetahui atau menyaksikan pelanggaran terkait pengelolaan sampah plastik

    • Berkontribusi untuk menyebarkan kesadaran akan masalah dan di antara orang-orang di sekitar Anda.





Source:

National Geographic; The Ocean Clean Up; National Marine Sanctuary Foundation; World; Wide Foundation (WWF); Marine Debris Program National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); Liputan6; The Weather Channel; Ranker

This article is written by E.J. Syamsy & Cindy T.

 

Happy Orangutan Day! image

Happy Orangutan Day!.

Prefer to read it in Indonesian? Click here 


Hey readers, it is with great excitement to tell you that we’re celebrating one of the most intelligent primates in the world, native from Indonesia, the orangutans. Before we get into this topic deeper, first you need to understand that orangutans aren't just a type of ape- that definition doesn’t do them justice! 

Illustration by Asian Orlando




Differences Between the Great Apes and Monkey

Great apes and monkeys are classified as primates and are often considered the same. In fact, a lot of people do not know the difference between great apes and monkeys. Even though they both are hairy and have a human-like body posture, these animals have distinct differences. You can find many differences between these two primates, ranging from classification, physical characteristics, to where they live.

The differences between them :

  • Great apes: They do not have tails and their arms are usually slightly longer than their legs. They can do bipedal movements like humans though they also move using quadrupedal movements. They are larger in size compared to monkeys. Orangutans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas are all classified as great apes.

  • Monkey: They have tails that help them with balance when climbing trees or walking on tree trunks. Their arms and legs have approximately similar length and their size is smaller compared to great apes. Though they can move using bipedal movements, they are spotted to move with quadrupedal motion more often.



Image source: treknature.com;pixabay.com

 

Orangutan Population

Based on data obtained from WWF, the total population of orangutans in the world currently is 14,600 and 90% is in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia. Orangutans can be found in the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia, namely on the islands of Borneo, in Kalimantan part of Indonesia, Malaysia, and in Sumatra Island Their range is naturally limited by altitude, as orangutans are typically found beneath 500 m above sea level (asl). The highest they have ever been recorded is 1,500 m asl, but this is the exception to the ‘rule’. Orangutans can be found in a large variety of habitat types from brackish mangrove forests to limestone karst forests, but most commonly, orangutans inhabit what is called tropical lowland forests. Within this term, however, it includes a large variety of different forest types, with the two most important for orangutans being dry dipterocarp forests and swamp forests.

The orangutan population is currently in critical condition. Indonesia itself has three species of orangutans, namely the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii), the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and the Tapanuli orangutan (Pongo tapanuliensis), where all three are Critically Endangered (CR) based on the IUCN red list. 

Left: Male Bornean orangutan (P. pygmaeus); Center: Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii); Right: Tapanuliensis orangutan (P. tapanuliensis)

 

Orangutan Statistics

A series of observations on orangutans are being carried out through the Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA) program. This activity was last held in Bogor, West Java in 2016. After updating, PHVA Orangutan 2016 became the main guidelines in implementing the Strategy and Action Plan for Orangutan Conservation (SRAK) 2019-2029, as a replacement for SRAK 2007-2017.

 

According to the 2004 PHVA Orangutan, the population and distribution of the Sumatran Orangutan are estimated at 6,667 individuals, with a habitat area of ​​703,100 hectares. Currently, it is estimated that the number of Sumatran orangutans are around 14,470 individuals in a habitat of 2,155,692 hectares. However, this figure does not indicate the increase in the orangutan population. On the other hand, there was a decrease of orangutans from 0.95 individuals/km2 to 0.67% individuals/km2. In a sense, orangutans will be difficult to find within 1 sq km of their habitat.

 

Based on the 2016 PHVA Orangutan Final Report, it is estimated that there are 71,820 orangutans left in Sumatra and Kalimantan, with a habitat area of ​​around 17,460,600 hectares. In detail, this following is an estimate of the decreasing number of orangutans in Kalimantan in 1997-2014

Region

Estimated Number of Individuals per Time Period

Overall %

1997-2002

2003-2008

2009-2014

Individuals

%

Individuals

%

Individuals

%

Sabah

14.354

14,1%

12.638

14,9%

10.691

15,1%

14,7%

Sarawak

2.268

2,2%

1.800

2,1%

1.664

2,4%

2,2%

West Kalimantan 

27.291

26,9%

22.103

26,0%

17.663

25,0%

26,0%

Central Kalimantan

49.467

48,7%

41.542

49,0%

34.673

49,0%

48,9%

East Kalimantan 

7.294

7,2%

6.023

7,1%

5.335

7,5%

7,3%

North Kalimantan

815

0,8%

746

0,9%

665

0,9%

0,9%

Total

101.489

100%

84.852

100%

70.691

100%

100%

 

Why Are Orangutans Critically Endangered?

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, orangutans are classified as critically endangered. Where this is caused by several factors, including:

 

  1. Loss of orangutan habitat

The exploitation of conversion forests into residential land, urban infrastructure, aquaculture, and mining can threaten the existence of orangutans. This is due to the increasingly narrow, even losing the orangutan habitats.

 

  1. Forest fires

In 1997-1998 there was a fire in the peatland forest of South Kalimantan which resulted in the occurrence of 8,000 Bornean Orangutans. This shows that forest fires are also a factor in the extinction of orangutans.

 

  1. Climate change

Climate change and even a bad weather can cause a decrease in quality and damage to some orangutan habitats. This causes increased risk of orangutan death due to ecosystem damage.

 

  1. Lack of awareness about orangutans

Research shows that 27% of people in Kalimantan do not know orangutans are protected by law. Therefore, the orangutans illegally hunt and make orangutans as meat food.

 

  1. Illegal hunting

Illegal hunting is the main cause of the decreasing number of orangutans. After being hunted, orangutans are taken as meat for consumption or as pets. However, both of them are certainly a threat to the existence of orangutans. Research shows that protecting orangutan habitats does not guarantee the survival of orangutans if illegal hunting is still ongoing.

Source: https://www.fiverr.com/jonnyplant

 

The Role of the Orangutans in the Forest

  1. Orangutans Encourage the Establishment of Protected Areas

Orangutans provide support for their ecosystems by being umbrella species. Umbrella species are important because their wide geographic range helps protect other organisms within their ecosystem. By creating protected areas where these umbrella species roam, the entire ecological community is benefiting.

Umbrella species: Species that have either large habitat needs or other requirements whose conservation results in many other species being conserved at the ecosystem or landscape level.

 

  1. Orangutans Shape Their Ecosystems

Orangutans can be defined as keystone species. A keystone species is an animal whose actions govern the well-being of a large majority of species in its given ecosystem. Orangutan is a frugivore, fruit-eater of hundreds of fruit tree species in the rainforest, making them an effective forest gardener, spreading seeds while they travel from one tree to another, especially the larger seeds that don’t get spread by smaller animals. Orangutans help to shape their forests and provide habitat and food for other fruit eating species. Without them, the forest could not support the entire community.

Keystone species is an animal whose actions govern the well-being of a large majority of species in its given ecosystem. 

Source: The Scientist Magazine

 

What Can We Do to Help Orangutans?

 

  1. Be a wise consumer

Our lifestyle contributes to the health and sustainability of our habitat. By becoming more aware of how much carbon footprint we create on a daily basis, we can help reduce carbon emission and contribute to habitat conservation. We can start by choosing products that are sustainable and develop positive habits; become more mindful of our waste, save water and energy, plant trees, opt for reusable food packaging, reduce the use of plastic, support local businesses, and inspire others to practice eco-friendly lifestyles. Educate yourselves on how to adjust your lifestyle better for the sake of the environment.

There are many organisations that provide information on which products or brands that have sustainable business. You can check out www.rspo.org, www.fsc.org, and many other certification organisations to check if you are buying the right products for you. It is critical that you do your own due diligence to become a responsible consumer.
Some products may contain palm oil, which damages Indonesia's forests. The forest plays an important role as a habitat for orangutans. The lower demand for products with palm oil, the smaller the economic opportunity to convert forests into oil palm land. However, if we have to use products with palm oil, make sure the product is certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO).

 

  1. Use products that are Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified

Wood from Indonesian forests is generally processed into various pieces of furniture and paper. So, use products that are FSC certified, because these products use wood that is harvested sustainably.

 

  1. Be an activist

Disseminating understanding about the important role of orangutans in the ecosystem and the orangutan threatened with extinction, can be done as an effort to preserve orangutans. The higher the public's concern for the orangutan, the higher the success of orangutan conservation efforts.

 

  1. Do not touch the wildlife!
When you visit orangutan habitat or conservation, avoid holding baby orangutans. Because the transmission of flu from humans is very dangerous for orangutans.

 

  1. Orangutans are not pets or a merchandise you can gift around

Do not buy orangutans or accept them as gifts. This is illegal to do and you will be fined or jailed.

 

  1. Reporting violations against orangutans to the authorities

If you find an organization or individual that is doing something dangerous to orangutans, such as torturing or hunting. Immediately report it to the authorities, so it can be followed up and prosecuted according to the applicable law.

 

  1. Become a volunteer

Taking part as an orangutan conservation volunteer is one of the real steps and can directly conserve orangutans. There are many organisations that will allow you to directly participate in such action, such as BOSF.

 

  1. Donate

Donating to conservations can certainly help preserve orangutans. This is because the facilities and programs for orangutan conservation can be improved through additional funding.


About BOSF

Hey earthlings, if you want to go further than our suggestions above, the BOS offered numerous possibilities for you to get involved!

 

The Borneo Orangutan Survival (BOS) Foundation is an Indonesian non-profit organisation that is dedicated to realising the conservation of Bornean orangutans and their habitat, by working together with local people, the Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia, and partner organisations around the world.  First established in 1991, the BOS Foundation started in response to the huge number of orangutans that were reported to have been driven out from their habitat. In the decades since, BOS Foundation has built two orangutan rehabilitation centres, one in Central Kalimantan located in Nyaru Menteng and one in East Kalimantan located in the reforested Samboja Lestari. Over the last three decades, we have been able to rescue over 2,000 orangutans and, in the present day, are taking care of more than 400 orangutans with the support of over 400 highly dedicated employees, varying in expertise in the areas of biodiversity conservation, primatology, ecology, forest rehabilitation, agroforestry, community empowerment, education, and orangutan veterinary care.   

The BOS Foundation is committed to protecting the future of the orangutan and its forest home through our programs in orangutan reintroduction, forest rehabilitation and conservation, community development, and lifelong sanctuary care for unreleasable animals. With working areas in both Central and East Kalimantan, two rehabilitation centres, three orangutan reintroduction sites, two large-scale reforestation projects, a wild orangutan protection and research program, widespread community development initiatives, and partner organisations operating across four continents, the BOS Foundation believes that complex problems require large-scale, innovative, and inclusive solutions. You can take an active role in this story by supporting the rehabilitation journey of our orangutans or one of the other BOS Foundation conservation activities! Together, we can ensure a brighter future for the Critically Endangered orangutan.


Three young orangutans with its carers at an orangutan school owned by BOSFT located at Kutai, East Kalimantan. Source: Antara/Regina Safri

 

What Can We Do to Support Orangutans Through the BOS Foundation? 

Short-term Care

  • Donate

1. Donation Pack

    • Rp 100.000 can provide fruit for 7 orangutans or plant a tree
    • Rp 250.000 can buy equipment for the orangutans enrichment program
    • Rp 500.000 can provide a general health check-up for routine health screening of orangutans
    • Rp 1.000.000 can provide an orangutans food for 30 days
2. Donate as you wish

These two donation options can be done only once or regularly. You can go to the website and easily follow the instructions on the “Donate” button. The money goes for acquiring protected forests for the release of rehabilitated orangutans and aiding the team rescuing orangutans from conflict and the illegal pet trade, to supporting the dedicated surrogate mothers who nurture orangutan orphans at Forest School and helping the enrichment team and veterinary staff.

100% of donation supports the costs for the teams and activities based from the working areas including, but not limited to the Nyaru Menteng Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre, the Mawas Conservation Program, and  the Samboja Lestari Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre.
 
  • Support the product

Orangutan Shop is a gift shop for orangutan and wildlife lovers. And what's great about that is that every purchase supports the efforts, and this means that when we shop we are also working for orangutan conservation. The merchandising team has high standards in regards to quality and design.

 

Long-term Care

  • Adoption Programme

BOS Foundation has rehabilitation centres for the orangutans being cared for. We can contribute directly to helping the growth of orangutans by virtually adopting them. We will receive regular updates of the species that we choose about the rehabilitation progress and support their journey towards true freedom. Currently, there are 8 individuals that we can adopt:

 

Taymur

Jelapat

Mema

Topan

Davi

Kopral & Shelton

Monita

Bumi

 

By adopting one of the orangutans in BOS Foundation rehabilitation centres, we are supporting their around-the-clock care by the dedicated BOS Foundation team and other supporting activities. Orphaned orangutans learn their first, basic skills from surrogate human mothers, who play a vital role in preparing them for a life in the wild. We will also get the Adoption Welcome Pack that includes a personalised adoption certificate, a full background story, and an exclusive portrait photo.

 




Sources:

Direktorat Jenderal Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam dan Ekosistem

Forum Orangutan Indonesia (FORINA)

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species

The Nature Conservancy (TNC)

Orangutan Foundation International (OFI)

Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA)

World Wildlife Fund (WWF)

Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOSF)

Orangutan Alliance

 




This article is written by E.J. Syamsy, Gentala Mahardika, Dewi Permatasari, and Cindy T.

We would also give tremendous thanks to BOSF team for their contribution and help.